Article

Influence Of Concentration And Fill Depth On Product Resistance Of Sucrose During Freeze Drying

By Stefan Schneid and Dr. Henning Gieseler, Division of Pharmaceutics, University of Erlangen, Germany

In a freeze drying process, mass transfer and product temperature are dependent upon the resistance of the product matrix to water vapor flow (Rp).1 Rp is influenced by numerous factors such as nature of the product, solute concentration, and freezing properties, and differs between formulations and process conditions used.